Business sound system requires a high fidelity sound quality compensation, reduction, to meet the environmental needs of a variety of artistic treatment effect. Professional audio mainly for cultural entertainment, it uses the equipment includes the following, with the ever-changing sound field processing technology, especially digital processing technology (DPS) applications, sound reduction not only strengthen the sense of presence, but also get different results.
A common audio equipment
Mixer in the audio system is a very important equipment, audio technology to the vast majority of it to deal with. His main function is to aggregate audio signals from various quarters, the size of the control signal level and to make certain technical processing, it will directly affect the system indicators. We often have eight-way, 12 Road, 16 Road, twenty-four and so are several. Its role, the main areas are as follows
(1) input signal (eg microphone, CD player, etc.) match
(2) signal amplification
(3) signal high, middle, bass tone enhancement or attenuation effect
(4) into the left input signals from various quarters, the right bus to determine mono or stereo work.
(5) separate ways to work the input signal into the Auxiliary bus scheduled to meet the needs of artistic process.
(6) According to the on-site use of the signal output level adjustment
In addition to the mixer, there is a kind of call mixer (MIX) of equipment, its main role is with the use of turntable with balanced compensation, and manual turntable with a pair of Taiwan Power switch is disco Ballroom essential equipment.
2. Equalizer (EQ)
Its main role is also acoustic frequency to add or compensation. Equalizer in the design, the range will 20HZ ~ 20KHZ frequency divided into several sections, and then separately increase or decay. It is the work of the form, generally 1 / 3 octave, 2 / 3 octave, 1 / 2 octave and so these forms. Equalizer will directly affect the use of the merits of sound quality. Generally, the first special test equipment will be balanced Used to test, fine-tune each frequency point of compensation, that the voice of the lack of lattice across the curve smoothing, thus improving sound quality, eliminating reflection phenomena, play an important role.
3. PA (AMPLIFIER)
Its role is to pre sent the audio signal amplifier output power signal to promote the speaker. The choice of amplifier, the power margin must be left to prevent the distortion power, the general speaker amplifier power is twice the rated power. In the selection of principle, should choose a good speaker, then use power amplifier. There are quasi-complementary symmetry amplifier type, full complementary symmetry type, VMOD crystal compound, they have their own advantages and disadvantages.
4. Speaker (SPEAKER)
Its main role is to electrical signals into acoustic signals. Wide range of speakers, has two frequency, third frequency, ultra-low frequency and so on, in practice, should be based on different places have different options, especially in dance halls and karaoke OK, the speaker selection is different. The selection of speakers, should pay attention to resistance, power, but also pay attention to the sensitivity and frequency response. Choice of good or bad it will directly affect the actual results.
5. Delay reverb
Known effects, its main role is to perform in the arts of sound processing. It can improve the clarity of the sound, increasing the loudness of the sound to simulate natural reverb, extended sound field, usually by the time delay and reverb of two parts, there are time delay and reverb into one of the. Effects are two kinds of electronic and mechanical type, electronic type is divided into two kinds of BBD and digital, mechanical spring-type now generally; two have their own characteristics, in the purchase, should pay attention to frequency characteristics, delay or when the reverberation time. Effects of the debugging can not be stereotyped, to vary according to the environment.
6. Microphone (MIC)
The main role of the microphone picked up sound signals, and then converted to electrical signal output. Wired microphone into the microphone, wireless microphone.
1. Cable Microphones
(1) condenser microphone
It is mainly piezoelectric, need to increase the polarization voltage (DC) to work, the general built-in signal amplifier, its output signal is high, meet the small signal pick up.
(2) power ring microphone
It almost sound as the microphone, in the entertainment use of more acoustic microphone output signals in recent small, so not vulnerable to the phenomenon of sound reflection.
2. Wireless microphone
Wireless microphone should be used in conjunction with the receiver, the wireless microphone as flexible, so use the more widely accepted. Into high frequency bands and low frequency bands, high-frequency bands for wireless microphone sensitivity is better, less prone to dead zone, the provisions of China's high-frequency bands 150MHz ~ 170MHz.
(1) decks (Professional, Associate Professional, civilian level)
(2) record players (moving-coil, piezoelectric)
(3) CD player (CD, LD, DVD, VCD, etc.)
Second, the composition of the professional sound system
1. System consisting of at least eight-way above the minimum requirements for the mixer, more than 2 × 150W of power amplifier, is greater than 2 × 10 section of the equalizer, more than 100W of speakers, this is also a dance hall minimum requirements.
2. The system of indicators to consider
As the sound system is used in series connection method, so every piece of equipment, indicators must be carefully considered, it is generally composed of the following three indicators:
(1) frequency response. It is defined as: the rated frequency range, voltage increase or decrease the value.
(2) noise performance. It will directly affect the subjective listening results are divided into signal to noise ratio S / N, input noise.
(3) distortion parameters. Distortion include harmonic distortion, intermodulation inter-true, phase distortion, amplitude distortion, and the most important thing is the first two. Distortion caused by many reasons, mainly in electronic components from the equipment causing feedback.
Third, dance hall sound system
1. The characteristics of selected equipment
(1) According to the ballroom of the business to purchase equipment characteristics
(2) According to the ballroom of the three-dimensional space and reasonable purchase equipment
2. Equipment of placement
(1) Speaker of the rational distribution
a. place b. stage-style hanging around the type placed placed c.
(2) professional equipment placed
a. work b. exchange of closed-type work 4. Kara OK sound system
(1) Kara OK way
a. b. private dining hall of public entertainment entertainment
(2) The Speaker of the rational choice
a. b. Speaker's power and sensitivity speaker placed reasonable
Fourth, the sound quality entertainment deal
1. To reduce the sound system of the noise
a. to select signal to noise ratio S / N high-powered audio equipment b. c. reduce lighting system requirements on the audio system silicon controlled sound system installation quality disturbance d.
2. To reduce the entertainment of the background noise
a. entertainment b. reasonable choice of noise handling indoor air conditioner outlet c. acoustic treatment
3. To reduce operational errors caused by man-made noise.
a. mixer input, balanced equipment such as improper handling b. improper stacking
4. The scene of the sound processing
a. the use of a balanced mixer input to improve the clarity of language b. the use of a balanced mixer input, deal with the use of sources of sound c. balanced mixer input, solve on-site feedback phenomenon d. reasonable reasonable to choose a good microphone e. Select regulate the proportion of direct sound and sound mixing operator f. deal with the phenomenon of listening g. cast on-site monitoring system set up
1, encoder 2, actuator 3, the final stage RF amplifier 4, Diplexer 5-day feeder
Second, transmission equipment debugging
1 tube transmitter debug 2 debug 3 solid-state transmitter, multiplexer debug 4 debug day feeder
Third, the audio processor
1, the main role of 2 audio processor, audio processor, the choice of 3, the audio processor debug
AM transmission equipment, transmission STL and RPU
STL: a way to feed the audio signal from the studio to launch room, or from a remote feed to the studio equipment. Major manufacturers such as Marti company, SmartiPOT encoder solution, the main products are RPT-40-type RPU transmitter and R-10 type receiver variable products, recently launched a new frequency synthesis models, its most important feature is crowded RPU band work with sufficient flexibility. Marti has also recently received the 950MHz Dolby Stone Road II and high-quality digital STL products, Marti Cellcast company also provides products, this product is compatible Comrex / Gentner frequency extender, which can be used within 3W cell phone or normal telephone line to work. That has the console and the battery, so no matter where, can set the remote communication capabilities.
QEI's CAT-LinK T1 STL has many years of history, there are more AES / EBU I / O interfaces to all-digital conditions. QEI applications for the RPU to provide Quick LinK II dual-channel digital spread-spectrum systems, it comes with analog I / O and a built-in microphone before the class. But the sight distance needs to be working well.
Moseley-Associates introduced Starlink Series STL system. The series has two forms: SL9003T1 in a leased T1 line, while the SL9003Q have a 15W 950MHz transmitter and receiver are compatible for broadcast situations. Starlink's features are: AES / EBU and analog I / O; 4 audio channel 15MHz. To facilitate the adjustment and inspection and troubleshooting, with a complete measuring and diagnostic devices. Moseley also offers famous PCL-6000STL equipment and the DSP-6000 digital STL codec. Applications in the RPU, Moseley RPL-4000 can be used for distance-based program synthesis chain. These devices with built-in mixer 3-way, for stand-alone long distance in broadcasting.
Intraplex company for radio and television show production of 400 "STL Plus" system, which has a two-way, linear and transmission of uncompressed audio data.
Energy-Onix produced STL-1/STL-2 frequency 950MHz STL, Digital One digital STL encoder and decoder. Harris displayed a CD LINR this year uncompressed digital 950MHz STL. This device is an independent device, which can accommodate a single AES / EBU audio input or two 15MHz line. Has two auxiliary data channel, a rate of 4,800 baud, and the other a rate of up to 9,600 baud. Any options are: 2 6kHz auxiliary audio channel or a 12kHz channel. DSP stereo receiver there is a generator for actuator feed or direct digital signal synthesis. Receiver can simultaneously receive all channels signals for remote control, SCA, RBDS, and other applications provide a great convenience.
TFT display its sophisticated 9100 Series 950Mhz STLymtlt DMM 92 Digital encoder / decoder.
Link Communications produced 800MHz/1.6GHz (950MHz optional) STL system.
AEQ manufactures a complete line of portable codecs, mixers and mixer expander.
AM with the new equipment:
Broadcast Electronics will present their latest model of Power Mizer 1kW AM transmitter. Machine installed in 2 rack chassis can be inserted in the (user-owned frame), only 25-inch size, weighing about 90 pounds more, and the price very attractive. Features are: E class push-pull power amplifier, 73% of the machine efficiency, and built-in C-Quam stereo exciter. Using Power Mizer technology, BE has also launched the single market, the cheapest solid 10kW transmitter rack. It prides itself on its 145% of the modulation, C-Quam AM stereo and BE's unique E-class amplifier.
Omnitronix's OMNI-100K extension of solid-state transmitter with antenna, power supply transient protection module design. The company also manufactures a full range of digital solid state AM transmitter and short-wave transmitters.
Potomac Instruments Introduces 1900 Series directional antenna monitoring device, SMR-11 AM monitor receiver, FIM-41 TV Field Test Instruments, and SD-31 synthesizer / detector, remote control, AM transmitters, and other peripherals.
Delta Electronics Inc. AM launch product categories are available. In addition to all TCT RF ammeter series, also developed a digital radio frequency ammeter, its performance and simulation of TCT ammeter the same, but to overcome the shortcomings of the simulation table. The company also manufactures RG-4 Receiver - generator, OIB-3 extended-range work Impedance Bridge, adjacent channel interference monitor, CPB-1 common point bridge, full C-Quam AM stereo exciter and stereo modulation monitor .
Continental Electronics Corporation's new products are three solid state AM transmitter: 314D (1kW), 315D (5kW) and 316D (10kW). The transmitter looks simple compact design is simple and durable good.
In addition to producing a full set of AM Phasetek company launched components, but also produce custom phase device, the static drain choke, spark gap, the RF amp meter and a variety of sizes of RF switch.
Nautel company exhibited a new series of solid state AM transmitter XL. The series of relatively simple design, compact structure. XL-12 (12kW), and XL-60 (60kW) ND-50 transmitter transmitter is only one-third of the volume. The company also ND5 type 5kW transmitter, as well as ND Series 1kW and 2.5kW models, optional configuration built-in C-Quam stereo exciter.
Kintronic Laboratories introduced the antenna controller software programming, which uses PCL technology and can be local or remote antenna switch. In addition to the antenna control, it also allows monitoring of the RF current and transmitter on / off control. Kintronic also produce false load amplitude and the static drain choke series spark gap, RF switch, grounding plate convergence AM transmitting equipment and other components.
Harris Corporation has a very mature DX Series digital modulation amplitude modulation transmitter. These transmitters are used efficiently patented digital modulation. Product type with Gates Five 5kW solid state AM transmitter.
LPB company can supply 30,60,120 W series low-power AM transmitters.
Progress in FM transmitter products
Improvement of tube equipment
Tube transmitters have been available and in use for decades, but the greatly reduced maintenance costs and reliability. Currently, manufacturers are launching tube transmitter with a functional new digital exciter control system and a variety of high-power transmitter. Although the final stage tube transmitter RF amplifier cavity remained unchanged, but other aspects of the performance can be compared with the solid-state machine, and the emission efficiency of the ideal. Moreover, because solid-state power module power capacity and the cost of cost constraints, power equipment, tube design is still more economical choice.
Development Trend of Solid State Transmitter
High-power solid-state transmitter, with the solid-state power module, and microelectronic technology, the continuous development of computer applications, small size and high reliability are basic directions. RF power amplifier design using the modular plug-in way to provide redundant backup, and some products even provide more power. New microstrip power combiner design, the machine in the power amplifier module can be removed for maintenance, without interrupting machine operation.
Switching power supply has been reduced as to reduce weight and volume transmitters effective means.
The development of digital technology.
With the development of digital technology to digitally generated FM stereo composite signal of the transmitter for the signal transmission connection to provide a good interface for digital broadcasting technology to create the conditions in the near future, the digital exciter will be more widely used, making radio Taiwan to establish consistent rules for digital radio link modulation.
Broadcast Electronics has introduced a new series of FM transmitter:
1, low-power Predator series and T series line of products. Predator series with 50,150 and 250W models such as digital exciter with NCO, modular design, use machines, digital stereo generator and automatic gain control, may form a complete low-power transmitter, or worse turn for the better.
2, T Series transmitter power range from 10 to 30kW, is the company's B Series transmitters BE upgrade. Machine to retain the essence of B-series transmitters, such as the reliable half-wave cavity folded to increase the solid middle of the new controller and amplifier. Controller can monitor the transmitter virtually all internal parameters. It is with a direct serial interface, by moden connected to PC, to monitor the operation of the transmitter. To prolong tube life, black filament voltage design is all the standard features of T series transmitters. BE also produces all-digital stereo generator and exciter to form a complete digital broadcast chain.
Harris transmitters for its Platinum series adds two new models, a complete 2kW to 10kW solid-state transmitter series. Full-line RF power amplifier module structure is used to allow non-stop machine in case of transmitter demolition. Even won a module, there is still plenty of peak transmitter reserves, and stable coupling microstrip line allows the machine to continue to full power operation. To improve the efficiency of the unit, the whole machine has installed energy management system that allows the use of broadband amplifier design to achieve the efficiency of electron tubes. The system according to the load power and ambient temperature parameters to adjust the cooling fan speed, reducing power consumption. Harris Platinum Series transmitter can use the digital exciter.
2kW Crown International has launched a new product. The company is now manufacturing a full line from 30W to 2kW transmitter with low-power solid-state products. The transmitter module plug-in approach with building blocks, configure the internal stereo generator, automatic gain control and radio receivers. To reduce the weight and size, using a switching power supply. The power supply and amplifier into two separate modules, so that the transmitter easy to transport. 15U rack occupying the entire transmitter.
Nautel companies that require high power, users do not want to change the tube, designed FM20-type 20kW solid state transmitter. Separate machine from Taiwan, the composition of 10kW transmitter, the final stage power combiner. FM Series also 4kW and 7kW models. RF modules are all-line, the transmitter in a module failure was able to continue to full power operation. All machines can be configured while the latest NE-50 digital exciter.
Continental Electronics Corporation in the solid state transmitter using the new controller software. The software can monitor a broad internal operation of the transmitter, to facilitate the transfer machine and troubleshooting. With external PC, you can monitor all the properties of the amplifier. With a moden, the software can also be required as a function of this remote control Used. Continental Electronics Corporation also manufactures high-power tube transmitters embedded diagnostic devices (EDU), with this device, you can monitor any performance transmitter. EDU serial interface and dedicated PC, running packages. Continental Electronics Corporation of the transmitter and standard analog or digital exciter match.
telco companies in addition to solid-state FM transmitter series, also produces television and L-band products.
Energy-Qnix Stealth transmitter launched a new series, the maximum power up to 1kW. The main function of the transmitter can set the exciter frequency remote control, so more devices suitable for the launch of Taichung, as a backup transmitters. It has an internal automatic gain control, 1kW models only 12U standard rack.
DB Elettronica Italy launched several new products, including new stereo generator and MOSFET power amplifiers. Vivaldi stereo generator is used for high-fidelity simulation equipment. In order to select the best amplifier performance, KF500-type 500W amplifier, using the company called "Cold FET" of new technology. KF1000 use the same power module, power up to 1kW.
QEI Corporation Quantum 1000E is a small transmitter. 1kW transmitters throughout Taiwan only 9 units high rack space. The machine includes an integrated composite limiter, used as a modulation control.
Armstrong Transmitter Corp. Launch FMX100LCD digital exciter, it can also be used as a small independent transmitter to use. This platform actuator 30, or 100W models, optional features include: built-in stereo generator and audio processor, serial interface and remote control software program, so that remote machine via modem.
OMB America is another noteworthy transmitter plant, it produces a full range of FM and TV transmitters.